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Electromagnetic Measurements

Voltage Measurements

DC Voltage Measurements and Standards

Rate our Services

Technical Contacts:

Yi-hua Tang
Tel: 301-975-4691
E-mail: yi-hua.tang@nist.gov

Denise D. Prather
Administration and Logistics
Tel: 301-975-4221
E-mail: dprather@nist.gov

Please contact the administration and logistics staff before shipping instruments or standards to the address listed below.

Mailing Address:
National Institute of Standards and Technology
100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8170
Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8170

Service ID
Number
Description of Services Fee ($)
53110S Special DC Voltage Measurements, by Prearrangement At Cost
53160C Tests of Solid-State Voltage Reference Standard (1 Output, 1 V to 10 V) 2217
53161C Each Additional Output 1413
53180S Special Handling (Equipment Pickup or Delivery) 255
53190S Special Handling (Cleaning, Minor Repair, Return Service Charge) 520
Fees are subject to change without notice.

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General Information-DC Voltage Measurement Standards

The service described in this section provides for the calibration of standards of direct voltage, saturated and unsaturated standard cells, and solid-state standards. The U.S. Representation of the Volt is maintained by monitoring the emfs of several groups of saturated standard cells in ovens on a monthly basis using the ac Josephson effect. Customer cells are calibrated by measuring the difference between their emfs and those of working groups of standard cells using automated systems comprised of low thermal emf, computer-controlled switches and high-resolution digital voltmeters.

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Special DC Voltage Measurements, by Prearrangement (53110S)

The evaluation, testing, or calibration of prototype dc voltage standards and measuring apparatus or unique voltage measurements are provided by this service. These measurements are performed only when deemed reasonable by the appropriate technical staff and serving the best long-term interests of the client, the measurement community, and NIST.

Table 9.5. Expanded Uncertainties of NIST DC Voltage Measurement


( x 10-6)
Josephson Calibrations of Primary Cells (1.018 V) 0.04
Unsaturated Standard Cells > 50
Saturated Standard Cells > 0.15
Volt Transfer Program (Saturated Standard Cells) > 0.20
Solid-State References (1.018 V, 10 V) > 0.19
Solid-State References (5 V to 10 V) > 0.19

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Solid-State Voltage Reference Standards (53160C and 53161C)

NOTICE: Beginning in January 2010, NIST will accept zener reference standards for calibrations at regular prices during two periods of each year. The two calibration periods are January-February and August-September. Zeners must arrive at NIST prior to January 15 to be included in the winter calibration round, and prior to August 15 for the summer round. Calibrations will be complete by February 15, and by September 15.

Solid-state voltage standards with outputs in the range from 1 V to 10 V are calibrated using a self-calibrating automated system which scales to any multiple up to 10 V of 1.018 V from the emf of a working group of NIST saturated standard cells. It then measures the difference between the emf of the standard under test and the emf of its own output closest in voltage to that of the standard being measured and computes its emf. Measurements are taken daily for 12 to 15 working days and the mean value of the results reported. It has been reported that solid-state voltage standards are subject to changes in their output values that are due to environmental temperature, barometric pressure, and relative humidity changes. The reported results are referenced to environmental conditions at NIST when the measurements are taken. Adjustments may be necessary for customer based on known pressure, temperature coefficients of the solid-state voltage standard measured separately.

Due to the limited battery life of many commercial standards, special shipping arrangements are advisable and can be made by contacting the Quantum Electrical Metrology Division.

Many solid-state standards have multiple outputs; to ensure proper testing, the outputs to be calibrated should be specified on the shipping papers as well as on the purchase order.

Voltmeter calibrators, multirange instruments with up to eight decimal digits of adjustability, are not considered by NIST to be standards and are not to be submitted routinely for calibration under this test category. Likewise, NIST will not accept component solid-state devices for routine calibration. However, new, state-of-the-art devices and instruments may be accepted for test under special circumstances (see Service ID Number 53110S) at the discretion of NIST technical staff.

The NIST calibration service for voltage is directly tied to NIST Josephson-junction voltage-standard arrays. This 1-V standard fabricated from niobium trilayer resists the effects of cycling between its operating temperature of liquid helium and room temperature better than previous designs.

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References-Voltage Measurements and Standards

Guidelines for Implementing the New Representation of the Volt and Ohm Effective January 1, 1990, N. B. Belecki, R. F. Dzuiba, B. F. Field, and B. W. Taylor, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol., Tech. Note 1263 (June 1989).

NBS Measurement Services: Solid-State DC Voltage Standard Calibrations, B. F. Field, Natl. Bur. Sand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 250-28 (Oct. 1987).

NBS Measurement Services: Standard Cell Calibrations, B. F. Field, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Spec. Publ. 250-24 (Oct. 1987).

The NBS Josephson Array Voltage Standard, C. A. Hamilton, R. L. Kautz, F. L. Lloyd, R. L. Steiner, and B. F. Field, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-36, 258 (June 1987).

A Sub-PPM Automated One-to-Ten Volt Measuring System, B. F. Field, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-34, 327 (1985).

Volt Transfer Program Instructions, NBS Internal Document, Unpublished, Revised (1983).

A High-Resolution Prototype System for Automatic Measurement of Standard Cell Voltages, D. W. Braudaway and R. E. Kleimann, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-23, 282 (1974).

Volt Maintenance at NBS via 2e/h: A New Definition of the NBS Volt, B. F. Field, T. F. Finnegan, and J. Toots, Metrologia 9, 155 (1973).

Designs for Surveillance of the Volt Maintained by a Small Group of Saturated Standard Cells, W. G. Eicke and J. M. Cameron, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Tech. Note 430 (Oct. 1967).

Standard Cells Their Construction, Maintenance, and Characteristics, W. J. Hamer, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), Monogr. 84 (Jan. 1965).

Complete Characterization of Zener Standards at 10 V for Measurement Assurance program (MAP), Y. Tang and J. Sims, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. Vol. 50, pp 263-266, (Apr. 2001).

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AC Voltage Measurements

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Technical Contact:
Richard L. Steiner
Tel: 301-975-4226
E-mail: richard.steiner@nist.gov
 
Bryan C. Waltrip
Tel: 301-975-2438
E-mail: bryan.waltrip@nist.gov

Denise D. Prather
Administration and Logistics
Tel: 301-975-4221
E-mail: denise.prather@nist.gov

Please contact the administration and logistics staff before shipping instruments or standards to the address listed below.

Mailing Address:
National Institute of Standards and Technology
100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8170
Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8170

Service ID
Number
Description of Services Fee ($)
53200S Special Tests of High-Accuracy Digital Multimeters, Multifunction Calibrators, by Prearrangement At Cost
53201S Special Tests of Low-Voltage AC-DC Transfer Standards, by Prearrangement At Cost
53202S Special 25-Point Test of Digital Multimeters (DMMs), by Prearrangement 3872
53203S Each Additional DMM Test Point for 53202S At Cost
Fees are subject to change without notice.

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Digital Multimeters (DMMs) and Multifunction Calibrators (53200S)

Voltage measurements are performed at dc at amplitudes between 1 mV and 1 kV. Relative expanded uncertainties as low as 1 x 10-6 are possible in the mid-voltage range.

Low-frequency (0.1 Hz to 100 Hz) measurements of ac voltage are made between 1 mV and 7 V using a NIST-developed calculable voltage standard in which waveforms are digitally synthesized using a lookup table and a digital-to-analog converter. Relative expanded uncertainties as low as 5 x 10-6 are possible around 7 V.

Wideband ac voltage measurements between 10 Hz and 30 MHz are made between 1 mV to 1 kV using a thermal voltage converter standard in an automatic calibration system. Relative expanded uncertainties range from 10 x 10-6 to 0.2%.

AC current measurements are performed on the same automatic calibration system using a thermal current converter. Current sources can be measured from 10 Hz to 100 kHz at current levels between 1 mA and 2 A. Digital multimeters (DMM) tests are normally limited to an upper frequency of 5 kHz; however, special arrangements may be made for tests at higher frequencies and currents. Relative expanded uncertainties are typically less than 100 x 10-6.

Direct current resistance measurements are performed between 1 Ω to 100 M Ω, for both DMMs and calibrators. Relative expanded uncertainties of 2 x 10-6 are possible for certain resistance values.

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Low-Voltage AC-DC Transfer Standards (53201S)

Measurements of the ac-dc difference of low-voltage (1 mV to 200 mV) thermal transfer standards, micropotentiometers, and voltage dividers are also offered as a Special Test in the dc to 1 MHz frequency range. Relative expanded uncertainties of 15 x 10-6 are possible in the audio-frequency range at 100 mV.

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Special 25-Point Test of Digital Multimeters (DMMs), by Prearrangement (53202S-53203S)

This is a special reduced cost, 25-point test covering all five functions (ac and dc voltage and current, and dc resistance) of most precision DMMs. DMMs submitted for test must have an IEEE-488 interface bus, and a list of DMM bus commands for the instrument may be required. The 25 test points available are shown in Table 9.6 below, together with the best possible expanded uncertainties. Additional test points are available over a wide range of amplitudes and frequencies.

Table 9.6 . 25-Point Standard DMM Test

Point Function Magnitude Frequency
(kHz)
Relative Expanded
Uncertainty (x 10-6)
1 DC Voltage 0.1 V
4
2 DC Voltage 1 V   2
3 DC Voltage 10 V
1
4 DC Voltage 100 V   2
5 AC Voltage 0.1 V 0.3 50
6 AC Voltage 0.1 V 10.0 50
7 AC Voltage 0.1 V 1000.0 1000
8 AC Voltage 1 V 0.3 20
9 AC Voltage 1 V 10.0 20
10 AC Voltage 1 V 1000.0 500
11 AC Voltage 10 V 0.3 20
12 AC Voltage 10 V 10.0 20
13 AC Voltage 10 V 1000.0 500
14 AC Voltage 100 V 1.0 20
15 AC Voltage 100 V 100.0 50
16 DC Current 10 mA
10
17 DC Current 1 A
20
18 AC Current 10 mA 0.3 75
19 AC Current 10 mA 5.0 100
20 AC Current 1 A 0.3 100
21 AC Current 1 A 5.0 200
22 Resistance 10 Ω
8
23 Resistance 1 k Ω
3
24 Resistance 100 k Ω
5
25 Resistance 10 M Ω
30

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References-AC Voltmeters and Sources

NIST Multifunction Calibration System, N. M. Oldham and M. E. Parker, NIST Spec. Publ. 250-46 (Feb. 1998).

Low-Voltage Standards in the 10 Hz to 1 MHz Range, N. M. Oldham, S. R. Auramov, M. E. Parker, and B. Waltrip, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46 (2) 395-398 (April. 1997).

A Calculable, Transportable Audio-Frequency AC Reference Standard, N. M. Oldham, P. S. Hetrick, and X. Zeng, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 38 (2), 368-371 (April 1989).

A High-Accuracy, 10 Hz-1 MHz Automatic AC Voltage Calibration System, N. M. Oldham, M. E. Parker, A.Young, and A. G. Smith, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 36, 883-887 (Dec. 1987).

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AC-DC Thermal Voltage and Current Converters (to 1 MHz)

Rate our Services

Technical Contact:
Thomas E. Lipe
Tel: 301-975-4251
E-mail: thomas.lipe@nist.gov

Denise D. Prather
Administration and Logistics
Tel: 301-975-4221
E-mail: denise.prather@nist.gov

Please contact the administration and logistics staff before shipping instruments or standards to the address listed below.

Mailing Address:
National Institute of Standards and Technology
100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8170
Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8170

Service ID
Number
Description of Services Fee ($)
53310S Special AC-DC Measurement Services, by Prearrangement At Cost
53350C Set-up Charge (No Test Points Included) for a Standard or Standards Set for AC-DC Difference (Voltage or Current) 2546
53351C First Point for Each Applied Voltage or Current 1048
53352C Additional Points for Each Applied Voltage and Current Level (Additional Frequency/Voltage or Frequency/Current Points) 76
Fees are subject to change without notice.

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General Information-Thermal Voltage and Current Converters (10 Hz to 1 GHz)

Alternating voltage and current are most accurately measured by comparing the heating effect of the alternating quantity to the heating effect of the average of both polarities of the direct quantity using thermal transfer standards according to the relationship

ac_dc_equation

δ is the ac-dc difference in proportional parts,
Qac is the unknown ac quantity, and
Qdcis the average of the two polarities of the known dc quantity

Note that δ is given in µV/V or µA/A for measurements at frequencies of 1 MHz and below, and in % for measurements at frequencies greater than 1 MHz.

Thermal converters are constructed according to their intended frequency and voltage range. They may consist of a simple thermal sensor (a thermoelement or thin-film device) for use at voltages up to a few volts, or a thermal sensor in series with a resistor for voltage ranges up to 1000 V. For ac current measurements, the thermal sensor is generally used with a high-precision shunt to measure currents up to 100 A.

Metrology-grade thermal converters generally have small ac-dc differences that are independent of changes in frequency or input signal amplitude at voltages from about 150 mV to 100 V, or, for current converters, from 1 mA to 1 A, at mid to high audio frequencies. The ac-dc differences of thermal converters generally increased (in some cases significantly) as the applied voltage or current is increased, or as the frequency departs from the audio region. Various methods of construction are used to reduce the ac-dc differences of thermal converters at the extremes of input signal amplitude and frequency. See the references for more information regarding thermal converter construction and use.

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Special AC-DC Measurement Services, by Prearrangement (53310S)

This service provides for the measurement or evaluation of prototype ac voltage or current standards, sources, or measurement instrument, and for other measurements of alternating voltage, current, or ac-dc difference not provided for in the calibration service described below, at the discretion of NIST technical experts. Components used to ac-dc conversions will generally not be tested unless they show promise of metrology-standard behavior, and only in limited numbers for prototyping purposes.

Special ac-dc difference calibration of appropriate thermal converters are now offered with an expanded uncertainty of 0.8 x 10-6. This calibration service is the result of an extensive study of a group of multijunction thermal converters that make up the NIST primary standards. Thermal converters will be accepted for this uncertainty provided that their performance, included stability and square-law response, is compatible with the NIST standards and comparator systems. In general, uncertainties below 10-6 is available for voltage from 0.5 V to 10 V, and currents from 5 mA to 20 mA, at frequencies from 40 Hz to 10 kHz. As in the case of other special ac-dc difference calibration services, an additional cost and an extended measurement time at NIST are required. Prospective clients should contact T. E. Lipe to discuss the requirements and arrangements related to this service.

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AC-DC Difference Calibration of a Standard or Standards Set (Voltage or Current) (53350C-53352C)

This service covers the calibration of thermal transfer standards covering the parameter space shown in Tables 9.7a through 9.7d . These transfer standards include coaxial standards, active transfer standards using solid-state sensors, passive multirange standards, thermal current converters, RF micropotentiometers, and peak-to-peak detectors.

Measurements are recommended at all voltages or currents and frequencies where the transfer standard is normally used by the customer. In addition, if 1000 V or 1200 V ranges are measured, tests at 600 V are recommended to evaluate the input level dependence of the resistor. Since some thermal transfer standards show large ac-dc differences at frequencies below about 40 Hz, additional measurements may be required to determine the low-frequency performance of the instrument. Unless an instrument has a previous calibration history, the user may wish to discuss the calibration parameters with the NIST staff.

The plane of reference for thermal voltage converter and voltage calibrations of thermal transfer standards below 100 MHz is generally at the center of a GR Type 874 tee. If the transfer standard has an input connector other than this type, the transfer standard will be connected to the plane of reference using an adaptor. In special cases, the plane of reference may be at the center of a Type N tee. In either case, a description of the plane of reference for the measurements will be provided in the calibration report, as well as the adapters, if any, used for the calibration. At frequencies of 1 MHz and below, these adaptors will make a negligible contribution to the ac-dc difference, compared to the uncertainty. At frequencies exceeding 1 MHz, corrections for the adapter will be included in the ac-dc difference provided to the customer.

Calibration of thermal current converters are performed with the converters connected in series with the current source. In this case, the low side of the unit under test is connected to signal ground. although this arrangement floats the NIST standard above ground potential, the NIST standard thermoelements provide sufficient isolation to reduce stray currents in the potential leads to a negligible level.

Uncertainties for low frequency voltage and current calibrations are provided in Tables 9.7a through 9.7d. Uncertainties for calibrations of thermal converters up to 100 MHz are shown in Table 9.7e.

Calibrations at frequencies above 100 MHz are performed only on TVCs with an integral tee connector. For these devices the reference plane of the measurements is at the front face of the Type N output connector of the TVCs. Uncertainties for the calibration parameter space for these devices are shown in Table 9.7f.

Measurements on peak-to-peak detectors are performed from 100 kHz to 500 kHz and are referenced to the center of a GR Type 874 tee. The RF-dc difference of these devices is measured, where a 50 kHz ac reference signal is applied to the instrument instead of a dc reference, and the RF-dc difference is defined as the difference between the signals required to produce a -zero- output signal. Uncertainties for the calibration parameter space for these devices are shown in Table 9.7g.

NOTE: Work is underway to evaluate peak-to-peak detectors using the NIST Sampling Waveform Analyzer. This method has the potential to significantly reduce uncertainties for these devices. Until this evaluation is complete, peak-to-peak detectors will be calibrated as a Special Test (53310S)

RF micropotentiometers are usually calibrated at their nominal rated output voltages. Frequency suggested for a normal calibration are 5 MHz, 100 MHz, 300 MHz, 400 MHz, 500 MHz, 700 MHz, and 900 MHz. Special arrangements may be made for calibrations at other frequencies.

RF micropotentiometers having resistive elements greater than 10 m Ω in combination with thermoelements with ratings between 5 mA and 100 mA usually have RF-dc differences less than 1 % at 5 MHz. Since the RF-dc difference approaches zero below 5 MHz, calibrations at 50 kHz and 5 MHz are sufficient to establish the RF-dc difference dependence on frequency between these two points, and intermediate frequencies may be interpolated from this relationship with no appreciable loss of accuracy.

RF micropotentiometers having resistive elements greater than 1 m Ω in combination with thermoelements with ratings between 5 mA and 100 mA may have RF-dc differences of about 5 % at 1 MHz. Interpolation below 1 MHz is not recommended for these devices.

The RF-dc difference (in percent) is defined as the difference between the RF and dc output voltages required to produce the same thermocouple output, with the resistor terminated in 50 Ω; that is:

rf_dc_equation

As a special service RF micropotentiometers with rated output voltages greater than 200 µV and may be calibrated from 50 kHz to 1 GHz with increased uncertainty. Uncertainties for the calibration parameter space for these devices are shown in Table 9.7h.

NOTE: Since the RF micropotentiometer calibration service was recently moved to Gaithersburg, this calibration service is not yet in operation. Please contact the NIST staff for more information about this service.

Some of the uncertainties offered and the parameter space covered in Tables 9.7 for this calibration service are presently being reevaluated. Significant reductions in the uncertainties and expansion of the parameter space are expected. To obtain the most recent information, customers are requested to contact the NIST staff, or visit the AC-DC Difference Project website at http://www.acdc.nist.gov. Routine calibrations of thermal voltage and current converters are generally performed on an on-demand basis. However, occasional extensive calibration requests may create scheduling problems; therefore, to facilitate rapid turnaround, please contact T. E. Lipe prior to sending the equipment.

Ongoing research at NIST will help to improve the Nation's capability to provide accurate measurements of alternating voltage and current and ac-dc difference to NIST customers. To see the latest research in the AC-DC Difference Project, please visit http://www.nist.gov/eeel/quantum/fundamental_electrical/acdc.cfm and follow the "Research Programs" link.

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Applied

Voltage

Table 9.7. Uncertainties for Thermal Voltage Converters in µV/V

mV

10 Hz

20 Hz

40 Hz

100 Hz

400 Hz

1 kHz

10 kHz

20 kHz

30 kHz

50 kHz

80 kHz

100 kHz

300 kHz

500 kHz

800 kHz

1 MHz

2

270

270

270

270

270

270

752

752

250

270

300

335

470

535

670

670

6

200

200

160

150

150

150

152

502

180

225

250

270

380

450

550

560

10

70

55

55

50

50

50

102

202

50

70

100

135

200

270

310

335

20

70

55

55

50

50

50

102

202

50

70

100

135

200

270

310

335

60

40

35

35

30

30

30

82

222

30

35

50

70

135

200

270

270

100

18

14

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

7

7

7

11

16

20

22

200

15

9

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

5

5

5

9

12

17

21

600

11

3

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

4

7

10

13

16

V

1

6

3

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

4

7

10

13

16

2

6

3

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

4

7

10

13

16

3

6

3

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

4

7

10

13

16

6

6

3

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

4

7

10

13

16

10

6

3

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

4

7

10

13

16

20

7

3

3

2

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

4

8

9

14

17

30

7

4

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

4

4

5

9

11

17

22

60

8

4

4

3

3

3

3

3

3

5

5

6

10

14

19

24

100

8

5

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

5

5

6

11

15

21

27

200

12

7

5

4

4

4

4

4

4

6

6

8

300

15

10

7

6

6

6

6

6

6

8

8

12

600

21

14

10

9

9

9

9

9

9

11

11

15

1000

23

15

10

9

9

9

9

9

9

11

11

18

Notes:

1. Best available uncertainty offered for calibrations. Actual reported uncertainty determined by stability of instrument under test.

2. These uncertainties referenced to Josephson AC Voltage Standard.

3. For voltages not listed, uncertainty is generally reported at the next smaller voltage.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Applied
Voltage
Table 9.7d. Uncertainty for Thermal Current Converters in µA/A
mA 10 Hz 20 Hz 40 Hz 100 Hz 400 Hz 1 kHz 10 kHz 20 kHz 30 kHz 50 kHz 100 kHz
1 40 30 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 30 35
2.5 30 25 18 18 18 18 18 18 20 25 29
5 22 18 11 11 11 11 11 11 15 27 38
10 22 18 11 11 11 11 11 11 15 27 38
15 22 18 11 11 11 11 11 11 15 27 38
20 22 18 11 11 11 11 11 11 15 29 42
30 22 18 11 11 11 11 11 11 15 30 45
50 22 18 11 11 11 11 11 11 15 33 51
100 24 20 12 12 12 12 12 12 17 39 60
250 28 23 14 14 14 14 14 14 19 43 67
500 30 25 15 15 15 15 15 15 20 47 74
A










1 34 28 17 17 17 17 17 17 24 54 83
2 40 33 20 20 20 20 20 20 26 59 92
3 48 40 24 24 24 24 24 24 31 69 106
5 58 48 29 29 29 29 29 29 37 78 117
10 74 62 37 37 37 37 37 37 54 99 144
20 110 92 55 55 55 55 55 55 79 124 168
30


202 202 202 251 266 314

50


251 251 251 329 361 442

80


310 310 310 428 488


> 100


373 373 373 499




Applied
Voltage
Table 9.7e. Uncertainty for Thermal Voltage Converters Without Built-in Tee in %
V 3 MHz 10 MHz 30 MHz 100 MHz
0.1 0.08 0.08 0.16 0.80
to



200 0.08 0.08 0.16 0.80

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Applied
Voltage
Table 9.7f. Uncertainty for Thermal Voltage Converters With Built-in Tee in %
V 10 MHz 30 MHz 100 MHz 200 MHz 300 MHz 400 MHz 500 MHz 600 MHz 700 MHz 800 MHz 900 MHz 1 GHz
0.1 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.08 0.08 0.16



0.80
to











200 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.08 0.08 0.16



0.80

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Applied
Voltage
Table 9.7g. Uncertainty for Peak-to-Peak Detectors in %
V 100 kHz 300 kHz 1 MHz 3 MHz 10 MHz 30 MHz 50 MHz 100 MHz 200 MHz 300 MHz 400 MHz 500 MHz
1.2 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.13 0.13 0.24 0.58 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 0.80

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Applied
Voltage
Table 9.7h. Uncertainty for RF Micropotentiometers in %
µV 50 kHz 100 kHz 500 kHz 1 MHz 10 MHz 30 MHz 50 MHz 100 MHz 300 MHz 500 MHz 700 MHz 900 MHz
1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 6 6
to











105 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 6 6

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References-AC-DC and RF-DC Voltage and Current Converters (10 Hz to 1 MHz)

Extension of the NIST AC-DC Difference Calibration Service for Current to 100 kHz, J. R. Kinard, T. E. Lipe, and C. B. Childers, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102 (1), 75 (1997).

A Reevaluation of the NIST Low-Frequency Standards for AC-DC Difference in the Voltage Range 0.6-100 V, T. E. Lipe, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-45 (6), 913 (Dec. 1996).

Performance of Multilayer Thin-Film Multijunction Thermal Converters, J. R. Kinard, D. X. Huang, and D. B. Novotny, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-44 (2), 383 (April 1995).

AC-DC Difference Characteristics of High-Voltage Thermal Converters, D. X. Huang, T. E. Lipe, J. R. Kinard, and C. B. Childers, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-44 (2), 387 (April 1995).

NIST Measurement Services: AC-DC Difference Calibrations, J. R. Kinard, J. R. Hastings, T. E. Lipe, and C. B. Childers, Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol., Spec. Publ. 250-27 (May 1989).

Determination of AC-DC Difference in the 0.1-100 MHz Frequency Range, J. R. Kinard and T. X. Cai, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-38 (2), 360 (April 1989).

Recharacterization of Thermal Voltage Converters after Thermoelement Replacement, J. R. Kinard and T. E. Lipe, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-38 (2), 351 (April 1989).

RF-DC Differences of Thermal Voltage Converters Arising from Input Connectors, D. X. Huang, J. R. Kinard, and G. Rebuldela, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 40 (2) (April. 1991).

NBS RF Voltage Comparator, L. D. Driver, F. X. Ries, G. Rebuldela, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), NBSIR 78-871 (Dec. 1978).

High-Frequency Microvolt Measurements, F. X. Ries and G. Rebuldela, ISA Proc., 18,1, 37.2.63, Instrum. Soc. of Amer. Res. Triangle Park, NC (Sept. 1963).

Thermal Voltage Converters for Accurate Voltage Measurements to 30 Megacycles Per Second, F. L. Hermach and E. S. Williams, Trans. AIEE, Pt. 1, Commun. Elect. 72, 200 (July 1960).

Accurate Radio-Frequency Microvoltages, M. C. Selby, Trans. AIEE, Pt. 1, Commun. Elect. 72, 158 (May 1953).

Thermal Converters as AC-DC Transfer Standards for Current and Voltage Measurements at Audio Frequencies, F. L. Hermach, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), 48 (2), 121 (1952).

A Wideband Sampling Voltmeter, T. M. Souders, B. C. Waltrip, O. B. Laug, and J. P. Deyst, IEEE Trans Instrum. Meas. IM-46 (4) 947 (August 1997).

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