Without ubiquitous, accurate, and reliable real-time sensors, the electric grid will not have the resiliency, efficiency, and capacity to manage the unprecedented number of variable energy sources and loads necessary to meet the vision for the Smart Grid. Rapid deployment of large numbers of sensors is not yet possible for three major reasons: 1) questionable sensor measurement accuracy and reliability; 2) lack of infrastructure to accommodate data flows from large numbers of sensors in real time; and 3) lack of interoperability among sensors and control systems. This project will extend the capability of the NIST synchrometrology testbed to develop of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) tests under the dynamic conditions most relevant to maintaining power system stability; to develop new tests to support aggregation of PMU data; and to support accelerated advanced sensors development to ensure the success the Smart Grid.
Objective: To accelerate development and deployment of advanced sensors and measurement systems to enable wide-area monitoring and control of the Smart Grid and to develop conformance and interoperability tests for new standards for these devices by 2016.
What is the new technical idea? This project proposes to characterize sensors in environments that realistically emulate field conditions. Tests and performance requirements will be developed which characterize advanced sensors and measurement systems that are the most demanding - for dynamically changing conditions, rather than the steady-state tests that have been developed to date. Effects present in harsh substation environments that affect PMU accuracies will be investigated as well as signal crossover in simultaneous three-phase measurement systems. Novel sensors, including Micro-Electromechanical Machines (MEMs) and optical sensors will be examined for measurement performance under distorted power conditions.
What is the research plan? NIST will extend the synchrometrology testbed for advanced testing capabilities for PMUs under dynamic conditions, and to develop tests for compliance of PMUs with newly-emerging standards that specify protocols for information used in wide-area information and control. The NIST testbed will be modified to accommodate IEC 61850-compliant PMUs. As new Phasor Data Concentrators (PDCs) become available as prototypes or production models, the testbed capability will be extended for testing PDC performance and interoperability. Results of the PMU and PDC testing, along with other recommended tests and technical input will be provided to the SDO working groups for further development and/or modification of the relevant standards.
A study of advanced sensor needs for advanced Smart Grid sensor measurements, standards, and testing will be made. This includes MEMs and optical sensors for monitoring power equipment condition and power system operating conditions; sensors for mitigation of the effects of power equipment failures, overload conditions, and storms; restoration of power system stability following disturbances; and rapid recovery from disruptive events. The NIST synchrometrology testbed capability will be extended to sensor characterization based on the results of the study identifying critical sensor needs. Recommendations and technical input will be provided to the relevant standards organizations for inclusion in sensor and equipment monitoring standards.
- Deployment in the NIST Synchrometrology Laboratory of a new three-phase PMU calibrator developed under a NIST ARRA grant.
Standards and Codes:
- The calibrator improves NIST PMU measurement services by better automating the process for faster turnaround times and gives NIST the ability to perform special tests of new PMU prototypes more quickly.
- NIST provided research results and tests of PMU performance to IEEE WGs that were incorporated in and accelerated the revision of the PMU standards, and new standards on PMU testing and deployment, and for PDCs. NIST also provided leadership of the Smart Grid Interoperability Panel Priority Action Plan 13 (SGIP PAP13), that coordinated the development of these standards as well as a new standard for time synchronization of power system equipment. These standards are:
- IEEE C37.118.1, “IEEE Standard for Synchrophasor Measurements for Power Systems”
- IEEE C37.118.2, “Synchrophasor Data Transfer for Power Systems”
- IEC 61850-90-5, “Communication networks and systems for power utility automation - Part 90-5: Use of IEC 61850 to transmit synchrophasor information according to IEEE C37.118”
- IEEE C37.238, “Guide for IEEE 1588 Profile for Protection Applications”
- IEEE C37.242, “Guide for Synchronization, Calibration and Installation of Phasor Measurement Units for Power System Protection and Control”
- IEEE C37.244, “IEEE Draft Guide for Phasor Data Concentrator Requirements for Power System Protection, Control, and Monitoring”
- The standards were developed on an accelerated timeline through coordination by PAP13 prior to the deployment of advanced PMUs under ARRA grants. These standards support the necessary interoperability of the over 1000 PMUs, funded under ARRA Smart Grid Investment Grants (SGIGs), with existing equipment in the power grid, as well as accurate testing of the new systems to ensure that grid reliability increases.
October 1, 2012
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