Detection, Enforcement, and Inspection
5. Through-Barrier Detection, Locating, Tracking, and Imaging
Through-barrier applications are relatively broad and include applications ranging from seeing through objects concealed in envelopes to tunnel detection. The applications presently addressed by OLES are through-barrier surveillance and tracking and through wall imaging. Imaging and surveillance are two different functions for through-barrier systems. Whereas imaging requires information appropriate for recognition of objects, surveillance does not. Surveillance may, for example, be based on motion of objects. More than likely, because of the physical principles involved and size and cost restrictions for a system, imaging will likely be a short-standoff (less than 20 m) operation and surveillance will be a long stand-off (up to 1000 m) operation.
5.1 Through-Barrier Surveillance and Tracking
1) To develop a functionally agile and programmable reference through-barrier system on which the development of performance requirements for commercially-available and in-development systems can be made and
2) study the phenomenology of through-barrier tracking, surveillance, and biometric recognition.
Law enforcement and military have long required the ability to determine the occupancy of structures at a safe distance and to be able to track motion of several occupants simultaneously.
Several manufacturers have recently made available through-wall systems for surveillance to meet the above requirements. However, there are no minimum performance standards for these systems and the user, consequently, must rely solely on the manufacturers' claims regarding the performance of these systems. The users need established standards on which to base comparative studies and/or to make an objective performance assessment.
- Establish collaboration with the US military and contractors to develop a reference through-wall surveillance system for long stand-off distances using stepped multi-band radar technology.
- Develop accurate methods for measuring the broadband electromagnetic properties of building materials and foliage and then to apply these techniques to assess the electromagnetic properties of prepared building materials and foliage. Use the data to create a NIST-traceable measurement database.
- Design reference test bed, including walls, clutter, and targets for assessing performance of through-barrier systems.
- Electromagnetic property measurements for a wide spectrum of commercial and residential building materials, including concrete and rebar, and foliage over a broad range in frequency. A database of dielectric materials.
5.2 Through-Wall Imaging Goals
1) To develop a functionally agile and programmable reference through-wall system on which the development of performance requirements for commercially-available and in-development systems can be made and
2) study the phenomenology of through-wall imaging. Customer NeedsLaw enforcement and military require the ability to determine the exact location of a building's occupants, possibly their intent from their motion and/or biometric indicators (heart rate, respiration, etc.), and their position (sitting, prone, etc). The images must be of sufficient quality to make the often extreme decision required by law enforcement and military.
- Establish collaboration with industry to develop a reference through-wall imaging system for short stand-off distances using non-mechanical sub-5-GHz scanning systems.
- Design reference test bed, including walls, human phantoms, clutter, and targets for assessing performance of through-wall systems.
- Initiate development of human phantoms for the 200 MHz to 10 GHz frequency range.
- Report on design requirements for human phantom.