**Sources, detectors and metrology**—We develop and learn how to characterize non-classical sources and single-photon detectors. It turns out that detectors of single photons cannot be merely characterized by detection efficiency, so …

**Single-photon Measurements**—We use single-photons and/or single-photon detectors to aid different precision measurements and to improve accuracy.

**Quantum Biophotonics**—Faint light detection is a staple in biology- used from systems biology research to bioassays for biomanufacturing and healthcare diagnostics.

**Memory**—Critical to quantum information applications is the need to store a quantum state while other qbits are created or processed.

**Universal Quantum Bus**—If quantum computers are ever to be realized, they likely will be made of different types of parts that will need to share information with one another, just like the memory and logic circuits in …

**Quantum Physics Theory**—Theoretical work relevant to the determination of values of the fundamental constants, tests of bound-state quantum electrodynamics (QED), and methods of numerical analysis are included among the …

**Precision Measurement Grants Program**—Since 1970, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has awarded Precision Measurement Grants to faculty members of U.S. universities or colleges for significant research in the …

**CODATA values of the fundamental constants**—Every four years, the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) issues recommended values of the fundamental physical constants. The values are determined by a least-squares adjustment, …

**International System of Units (SI)**—The International System of Units (SI) provides definitions of units of measurement that are widely accepted in science and technology and which set measurement standards agreed to through the …

**Reactivity and chaos in collisions of Atoms and Molecules**—Collisions and reactions between atoms and molecules are fundamental to many parts of physics and chemistry. They control, for example, the rate at which gasses approach thermodynamic equilibrium …

**Quantum Many-Body Physics, Quantum Optics, and Quantum Information**—The main long-term goals of our theoretical research group are to understand and control large interacting quantum systems, as well as to design and create new ones. To achieve these goals, we …

**AC-DC Difference**—The NIST ac-dc Difference Project provides U.S. industry with the essential link between ac and the corresponding dc electrical standards via a world-class calibration service, and through …

**High-Resolution Atomic Spectroscopy**—Accurate measurements of atomic wavelengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths and isotope and hyperfine structure using diffraction grating spectrographs, Fourier transform spectrometers.

**Designing the Nanoworld: Nanostructures, Nanodevices, and Nanooptics**—Nano and atomic scale theory of the electronic, optical and mechanical properties of ultrasmall structures, such as semiconductor quantum dots and dopants in Si, the operation of devices made from …

**Fabry-Perot Displacement Interferometry**—High-resolution Fabry-Perot interferometry is being developed and employed for demanding applications in mechanical displacement metrology.

**Micro- and nano-optomechanical systems**—Light can interact with mechanical systems in interesting and useful ways, not only probing the mechanical motion with spectacular sensitivity, but also driving the mechanics via radiation pressure …

**Si-Based Single Spin Coherence and Manipulation**—We are characterizing Si-based single-electron quantum dots at low temperatures (down to 10 mK) to explore the possibility of quantum coherent manipulation in Si-based technology.

**Silicon-based single electron current standards **—We are working to fabricate and perform low-temperature measurements of CMOS-compatible single electron devices in silicon which could be used as a standard of electrical current. Our goal is to …

**Spinor Condensates and Ultracold Collisions**—Interactions between cold atoms can provide us with the means to manipulate matter on the smallest scales. Collisions between laser-cooled atoms, in particular amongst those in Bose-Einstein …

**Nonlinear Optics and Non-classical Light**—Nonlinear optics provides a way to generate light with different frequencies and different quantum statistical properties. We have developed a nonlinear 4-wave mixing technology in atomic vapors …

**Electronic Kilogram**—This project provides the basis for a new definition of mass, based on unchanging quantum properties of nature rather than a physical artifact. This is accomplished through a high-accuracy …

**Fabrication and Metrology of Novel Magnetic Tunnel Junctions in the Ultra-thin Barrier Limit**—Magnetic tunnel junctions, nanostructured by highly charged ions, are being probed and characterized to establish the foundation for novel magnetic random access memory architectures expected to …

**Applications of Quantum Information**—Theory is being developed and used to devise methods for preserving and exploiting the quantum behavior of ever-larger systems for metrology, communication, and information processing.

**Small Mass and Small Force Metrology at NIST**—There are two projects: The electronic milligram; and NIST-on-a-chip optomechanical methods for calibration of mass, force, laser power and other quantities.

**Calibration of Force Transducers**—NIST provides calibration services for force-measuring devices by applying known forces, either tension or compression, to the elastic device and recording the sensed deformation. Most calibrated …

**National Type Evaluation Program (NTEP)**—The NTEP program is administered through the National Conference on Weights and Measures (NCWM).

**NIST Mise en Pratique of the New Kilogram Definition**—As part of a New SI system of units to be adopted in 2018, the kilogram will be redefined so that it may be realized in terms of Planck’s constant. By experimental necessity, this new realization …

**Calibration of Mass Standards**—NIST maintains the national standard for mass in the form of the prototype kilograms (K4, K20, K79, K92, and K102) and provides services to support the parts of the national measurement system that …

**SI-traceable Dynamic Force**—Established calibration methods for force transducers are static, with a known constant force applied to the transducer and compared to the transducer indication. However many force measurements …

**Reconditioning of the 4.45 MN deadweight machine**—Physical disassembly of the 4.45 MN (1,000,000 lbf) deadweight machine (DWM) began in FY15 in order to address material galling that developed in key structural components within the stainless …

**Quantum State Manipulation of Ultra-cold Fermionic and Bosonic Atoms**—This theoretical research is done in collaboration with scientists at the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI) and the Center for Quantum Information and Computer Science (QuICS), both research …

**Spectroscopy of Engineered Atoms**—Experiments with atomic systems designed to have features more favorable for improved measurements of atomic properties and constants of nature.

**Metrology of the Ohm**—Resistance standards traceable to NIST provide references for measurements of current at levels from 3000 A to below 20 fA and are used to support a wide variety of impedance, temperature, strain, …

**Quantum Conductance**—Graphene, discovered in 2004, has truly extraordinary electronic properties that enable new approaches in many areas where conventional materials are running into obstacles, ranging from the macro …

**Multi-Photon Laser Cooling**—Laser cooling of atoms is a powerful and widely used tool in atomic physics. Traditional laser cooling relies primarily on the mechanical effect of single-photon transitions between ground states …

**Plasma Metrology**—Experimental and computational techniques in support of commercial and scientific uses of plasmas.

**Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center **—Critical compilations of atomic energy levels, transition wavelengths, and transition probabilities. Online databases.

**Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) Facility**—The NIST EBIT Facility is used to investigate the science and applications of highly charged ions.

**Newtonian constant of gravitation international consortium**—The Newtonian constant of gravitation G is one of the most fundamental constants of classical physics. Recent measurements of G are in disagreement, with discrepancies that are roughly ten times …

**Farad and Impedance Metrology**—This project aims to provide the world’s best basis for accurate impedance measurements by tying the U.S. legal system of electrical units to the International System of Units (SI) through the …

**Quantum Computation and Simulation with Neutral Atoms**—Quantum information processing seeks to use the features of quantum physics to accomplish otherwise intractable computational tasks. The two main thrusts of quantum information research we are …

**Light-matter Interactions in Semiconductor Nanostructures**—The quantum optics of light interacting with semiconductor-based nanostructures is being studied to extend concepts of entanglement and coherence in atomic physics to solid-state systems such as …

**Electric Power Metrology and the Smart Grid**—Our country's way of life depends on the electric power distribution system. Keeping the national electric grid in good working order -- and ensuring power is measured accurately and billed fairly …